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Allergic rhinitis, its causes, methods of treatment, and prevention.

Some people have a higher risk of developing allergic rhinitis and include those who have risk factors such as: a family history of allergies, weak immune system and exposure to cigarette smoke, as it is more common among males than females, and there are two types of allergic rhinitis, known as hay fever ) And perennials that occur throughout the year, and include the symptoms of frequent sneezing, runny nose, itchy nose, nasal and eyes congestion or swelling, and can also lead to symptoms such as sore throat, dry cough, headache, fatigue, weakness and dark circles under the eyes The nasal allergy is frequent in the transitional seasons between summer and winter, and the cause of the allergy is a substance that is not harmful in any other way that causes allergic rhinitis. Which results in allergic rhinitis due to the nose's response to some allergens. Pollen is the most common allergen to cause seasonal allergic rhinitis, and millions of adults all over the world suffer from allergic rhinitis, according to World Health Reports. Where reports indicate that about 10-30% of the world's population suffers from allergic rhinitis.

Causes of allergic rhinitis:
When your body comes into contact with an allergen, it triggers histamine, which is a natural chemical that helps protect your body from allergens. This chemical can cause allergic rhinitis and its symptoms including runny nose, sneezing, itching, and a vaccine. Trees The other common allergens include: pollen for herbs, dust, animal dander (which is old skin), and cat saliva. At certain times of the year, pollen can be a problem with allergic rhinitis. Pollen and tree pollen are more common in the spring, and herbs produce more pollen in summer and fall.

What are the risk factors for allergic rhinitis?
Allergies can affect different people a person, but you are more likely to have allergic rhinitis. If there is a history of allergies in your family, infection with asthma or eczema can increase the risk of developing allergic rhinitis, and some external factors can aggravate the condition, and These factors include: cigarette smoke, chemicals, cold temperatures, humidity, wind, air pollution, perfumes, and hairspray.
How is a nose allergy diagnosed?
If you suffer from a slight allergy, you will only need a physical exam, however the doctor may take certain tests to find out the best treatment and prevention plan for you. And there is a skin prick test, which is considered one of the most common tests, where the doctor puts several substances on your skin to see how your body interacts with each one, and it usually shows a small red bump if you have an allergy to any substance, and a blood test or a Rast test is considered A common test is also common, and the Rast test measures the amount of antibodies (immunoglobulin E) to allergens in your blood.

Treating allergic rhinitis:
Allergic rhinitis can be treated if you have it, in many ways. These methods include taking medications, home remedies, or alternative medicines. You should talk to your doctor before trying any new treatment for allergic rhinitis. Using antihistamines, where you can take antihistamines to treat allergies. Antihistamines work by stopping the manufacture of histamine in your body. Some common and over-the-counter antihistamines include: fexofenadine, diphenhydramine, desloratadine, levocetirizine, cetirizine. You should speak to your doctor before starting any new medicine, and make sure that the new allergy medicine does not interfere with any other medicines you take.

Eye drops and nasal sprays:
Eye drops and nasal sprays can help relieve itching, and other symptoms associated with allergies for a short time. However, you may need to avoid using these products in the long run, and it is considered as an anti decongestant. Excessive use of eye drops and nasal sprays can also cause reflux, and corticosteroid can help in cases of infections and immune responses, and As his self does not cause the effect of recoil. It is usually advised to use steroid nasal sprays (which contain cortisone) as a long-term and useful method for controlling allergy symptoms. , And it is an expression available for purchase without the need for a prescription, complete and you should speak to your doctor before starting to rely on any treatment for allergic rhinitis to make sure that you are taking the best medications to get rid of the symptoms.

Decongestants to treat nasal congestion:
Where you can use decongestants for a short period, usually not more than 3 days, and that works to relieve nasal pressure and sinuses. And do not use decongestants for a longer period of time to have a regressive effect, which means that once symptoms stop, it will get worse, and non-prescription decongestants include: aux-metazoline (nasal spray), sudo-ephedrine, phenylephrine, cetirizine with Sudo-ephedrine, and if you suffer from arrhythmia or heart disease, have experienced a stroke, anxiety, sleep disturbances, high blood pressure or bladder problems, talk to your doctor first before taking a decongestant.

Immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis:
Where the doctor may recommend relying on immunotherapy if you suffer from severe allergies, and you can also use this treatment plan in conjunction with other medicines that are used to control the symptoms. Immunotherapy reduces the immune response to allergens over time. It requires long-term adherence to the treatment plan, and immunotherapy against allergies begins with a cumulative stage, and through this stage you will get one to three doses per week for a period ranging from 3-6 months to allow your body to get used to the allergens in the dose. In the conservative phase, you will need to see a doctor every two to four weeks over a period of 3-5 years, and you may not notice any change even after more than a year has passed since the start of the conservative stage. Once you reach this point, your allergy symptoms will likely either fade or disappear completely. Some people find that they may experience a severe allergic reaction when taking doses. And the attending physician may ask you to wait 30-45 minutes with him to make sure there is no severe reaction or something that
threatens your life.

Sublingual immunotherapy:
Sublingual immunotherapy is done by placing a tablet containing a mixture of many allergens under your tongue, and it works similarly to immunotherapy and allergy doses, but without injections, and this treatment is currently considered effective for treating allergic rhinitis and resulting asthma About pollen, cat dander, and dust mites. You can take sublingual immunotherapy for some types of allergies, but after consulting a doctor. The doctor will give you the first dose and then you will follow the next doses over a period of time determined by the doctor himself. Possible side effects include itchy mouth, itchy ears, or throat irritation, and in rare cases sublingual immunotherapy can cause hypersensitivity reactions, so you should talk to your doctor to find out if this treatment is useful for your allergic condition. Will you respond to treatment or not?

Home remedies for allergic rhinitis:
If you have seasonal allergies or pollen allergy, you can try relying on air conditioners instead of opening windows. And if possible, add a special filter for allergies, and the use of a dehumidifier or a highly efficient air lukewarm can help control allergies while you are inside the house. If you suffer from dust mite allergy, wash dishes and blankets with hot water and at a temperature higher than 55 degrees. percentage. You can also reduce the number of rugs in your home, as this may help you as well.

Complications of allergic rhinitis:
It is not possible to prevent allergic rhinitis. But allergic rhinitis can be managed and controlled to achieve a good life with allergies. Some of the complications that can be caused by allergies are:
  • Inability to sleep due to symptoms that prevent you from sleeping at night.
  • The development or worsening of asthma symptoms, frequent ear infections.
  • Sinusitis or recurrent sinus infections.
  • Frequent headache, nasal congestion, and stuffy nose.

Complications can also be a side effect of antihistamines. And drowsiness is the most common. Other side effects include headache, anxiety and insomnia. In some rare cases, digestive or urinary effects may occur.

Allergic rhinitis in children:
It is possible for children to develop allergic rhinitis as well, and it usually appears before the age of ten, and if you notice that your child has symptoms similar to cold symptoms at the same time each year, they may have seasonal allergic rhinitis, and symptoms similar to those in children It appears in adults, but children usually have tear eyes, which is called allergic conjunctivitis. If you notice shortness of breath or difficulty breathing in addition to other symptoms, the child may also have asthma, and if you think your child has allergies, you should go to the doctor. As it is important to get the correct diagnosis and the right treatment.

 Recent tips to prevent allergic rhinitis:
  1. It is advised to stay at home if the pollen is high at this time of the year.
  2. It is advised to avoid exercising outdoors in the early morning.
  3.  You should take a shower immediately after returning from outside.
  4. Close doors and windows well during the allergy season.
  5. To cover your nose and mouth well while working in the garden.
  6. And wash your pet at least twice a week to reduce lint.
  7. Remove carpets from your bedroom if you are concerned about dust mites.
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