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Causes and symptoms of dry eyes

 Dry eyes is one of the dangerous diseases that affect the cornea of ​​the eye, and it is also known as keratitis, or dry conjunctiva, and dry eyes mean a decrease in the production of tears on the one hand, and an increase in their evaporation on the other hand, and that this disease requires consulting a specialist cornea doctor, as the patient cannot To be cured with time without the use of medical drugs, and the delay in receiving treatment makes the solution difficult, which leads to other more serious diseases that are not limited to the cornea only, and blurred vision is one of the most important symptoms of dry eye disease, where the patient suffers Scars or cicatrices on the surface of the cornea, and vision becomes blurry after reading for a short period, or while focusing on a specific point for a long time, and here it must be noted that the disease in itself is not considered dangerous.

Dry eye symptoms:
  1. Dry eyes are considered a pathological symptom, but it is not considered a disease in itself, and often dry eyes are accompanied by the following symptoms:
  2. Mucus forms around the eye in the form of strings.
  3.  Constant eye fatigue after reading or using a computer.
  4.  Difficulty wearing contact lenses and their types.
  5.  Constant tear discharge after long periods of dehydration.
  6.  Suffering from intermittent blurry vision. Feeling of heaviness in the eyelid.
  7. Feeling tired and tired eyes.
  8. A constant feeling of tingling.
  9.  Burning eye.
  10. The feeling of having something in the eye.
  11.  Eye pain and redness.
  12.  Persistent itching.

Causes of dry eyes:
 Decrease in production and secretion of tears:
Where dry eyes occur when the eye becomes unable to produce the necessary amount to maintain eye moisture, and this pathology is called conjunctiva, and there are many reasons that lead to the weakening of the eye's ability to produce tears, namely، Aging, taking certain medications, such as: antidepressants, antihistamines, decongestants, Parkinson's disease (Parkinson's disease), high blood pressure medications, acne medications, in addition to birth control and hormone replacement, and some diseases Such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, Sjogren's syndrome, thyroid diseases, vitamin A deficiency, damage to the lacrimal glands as a result of inflammation or exposure to radiation, and laser vision correction operations, but the accompanying symptoms are usually temporary.

 Increased tear evaporation rate:
Dry eye also occurs as a result of an imbalance between what the eye produces from tears and the rate of its evaporation, and it happens that tears evaporate from the eye more quickly due to exposure to dry air, smoke, or strong winds, and forgetting to blink and usually occurs during reading, driving, or while using Computer, and the occurrence of a disease of the eyelids such as eyelid alienation, or external entropion, which is a turning of the lower eyelid out, or inflection of the eyelid, or entropion, which is the folding of the eyelids inward, which leads to friction of the cilia with the cornea.

An imbalance of tear components:
Where tears are composed of three layers: the watery, oily, and mucous (viscous), and any defect in one of these layers affects the effectiveness of tears in maintaining the moisture and safety of the eye from drying out. There are many health problems that may lead to an imbalance in the components of tears, for example, blepharitis, and it may lead to blockage of the eyelid glands that produce the oil layer.

The most likely group to suffer from dry eyes:
 Women are considered the most vulnerable group to developing dry eyes, as women constitute the largest percentage among the number of the estimated five million sufferers in the United States of America who are over fifty years old, and pregnant women or those in the menopause or those undergoing hormone replacement therapy are the most vulnerable to infection Among women, however, this does not mean that dry eyes do not occur in men.

Dry eye complications:
There are three important complications of dry eyes, and they are:
 Infection of the eye with infections:
Tears contain proteins that constitute a defensive barrier against bacterial and viral infections, as tears, for example, contain lysozyme, which is an enzyme that breaks down the bacterial wall, and it contains immune globulin that also helps protect the eye from bacterial infections, so any imbalance in the amount of tears Or its quality negatively affects eye health and puts it at risk of infection.

Damage to the surface of the eye:
 Many scars may arise on the eye and the surface of the cornea in particular if the dry eye is severe and severe, and the person does not treat his eye for a long time, in addition to the fact that he may develop a corneal ulcer, and in both cases the person may develop poor vision. Decline in the quality of life: The person with dry eyes has difficulty performing daily tasks that require concentration, such as reading.